Academic Articles



97. Dutton, E. & Dunkel, C. (In Press). “For Tomorrow We Die”? Testing the Accuracy of Stereotypes about Atheists and Agnostics. Mankind Quarterly.

96. Madison, G. & Dutton, E. (In Press). Types of Crying. In Shackelford, T. & Shackelford-Weekes, V. (Eds). Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. New York: Springer.

95. Madison, G. & Dutton, E. (In Press). Crying. In Shackelford, T. & Shackelford-Weekes, V. (Eds). Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. New York: Springer.

94. Dutton, E., Madison, G. & Van der Linden, D. (2019). Why do high IQ societies differ in intellectual achievement? The role of schizophrenia and left-handedness in per capita scientific publications and Nobel prizes. Journal of Creative Behavior.

93. Abdelrasheed, N., Dutton, E., Almashikhi, K., te Nijenhuis, J. & Albaraami, Y. (2019). Regional Differences in Intelligence in the Sultanate of Oman. Personality and Individual Differences, 148: 7-10.

92. Kura, K., te Nijenhuis, J. & Dutton, E. (2019). Spearman’s hypothesis tested comparing 47 regions of Japan using a sample of 14 million children. Psych, 1: 26-34.

91. Dutton, E., Bakhiet, S., Ziada, K., Essa, Y., Ali, H., Alqafari, S. (2019). Regional Differences in Intelligence in Egypt: A Country where Upper is Lower. Journal of Biosocial Science, 51: 273-281.

90. Abdelrasheed, N., Al Mashikhi, K., Dutton, E., Bakhiet, S. & Lynn, R. (2019). Sex Differences in Intelligence on the Advanced Progressive Matrices among 15 to 18 year-old Students in Minya Governorate, Southern Egypt. Mankind Quarterly, 59: 394-405.

89. Albursan, I., Al Qudah, M., Dutton, E., Hassan, E., Bakhiet, S., Alfnan, A., Aljomaa, S. & Hammad, H. (2019). National, Sex and Academic Discipline Difference in Smartphone Addiction: A Study of Students in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Sudan. Community Mental Health Journal, 55: 825-830.

88. Dutton, E. (2019). J. Philippe Rushton. In Shackelford, T. & Shackelford-Weekes, V. (Eds). The Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. New York: Springer.

87. Dutton, E. & Madison, G. (2019). The Evolution of Punishment. In Shackelford, T. & Shackelford-Weekes, V. (Eds.). The Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. New York: Springer.

86. Dutton, E., Bakhiet, S., Alhossein, A. & Essa, Y. (2019). A Flynn Effect in Kuwait, 1985-1998. Personality and Individual Differences, 130: 355-359.

85. Dutton, E. (2019). Can You Marry a Foreigner Yet Still Be Ethnocentric? A Response to Cofnas’ Criticisms of Kevin MacDonald’s Culture of Critique. Mankind Quarterly, 59: 3. cofnas reply


84. Dutton E. (2018). Why are Non-Heterosexual Males Attracted to Religious Celibacy? A Case for the ‘Gay Shaman’ Theory. Mankind Quarterly, 59: 197-215. 6. dutton religious celibacy-2

83. Ziada, K., Becker, D., Bakhiet, S., Dutton, E. & Yossry, A. (2018).  Impulsivity among young adults: Differences between and within Western and Arabian populations in the BIS-11. Current Psychology,

82. Van der Linden, D., Dutton, E. & Madison, G. (2018). National-Level indicators of androgens are related to the global distribution of number of scientific publications and science Nobel prizes. Journal of Creative Behavior,

81. Dutton, E. (2018). Jewish Group Evolutionary Strategy is the Most Plausible Hypothesis: A Response to Nathan Cofnas’ Critical Analysis of Kevin MacDonald’s Theory of Jewish Involvement in Twentieth Century Ideological Movements. Evolutionary Psychological Science,

80. Dutton, E., Bakhiet, S., Osman, H., Ahmed, A. & Ali, S. (2018). A Partial Negative Flynn Effect Among the South Sudanese: The Effects of Different Curricula. Adab Alneelain Journal, 3: 3.

79. Dutton, E. (2018). Fellatio. In Shackelford, T. & Shackelford-Weekes, V. (Eds.). Encyclopaedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. New York: Springer.

78. Woodley of Menie, M.A., Dutton, E., Figueredo, A. J. & Carl, N., Debes, F., Hertler, S., Irwing, P., Kura, K., Lynn, R., Madison, G., Meisenberg, G., Miller, E., te Nijenhuis, J., Nyborg, H., Rindermann, H. (2018). Communicating intelligence research: Media misrepresentation, the Gould Effect and unexpected forces. Intelligence, 70: 84-87.

77. Woodley of Menie, M.A., Fernandes, H., Kanazawa, S. & Dutton, E. (2018).  Sinistrality is associated with (slightly) lower general intelligence: A data synthesis and consideration of secular trend data in handedness. HOMO: Journal of Comparative Human Biology, 69: 118-126.

76. Dutton, E. & Lawton, P. (2018). Gentle Bastards in Sixteenth Century Cheshire: A Case Study of the Dutton Family. Cheshire History, 58: 22-46.

75. Dutton, E., Bakhiet, S., Madison, G., Essa, Y. & Rageh, M. (2018). Sex differences on Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices within Saudi Arabia and Across the Arab World. Personality and Individual Differences, 134: 66-70.

74. Dutton, E. & Madison, G. (2018). Why do middle-class couples of European descent adopt children from Africa and Asia? Some Support for the Differential K Model. Personality and Individual Differences, 130: 156-160.

73. Dutton, E. (2018). Women marry up. In Shackelford, T. & Shackelford-Weekes, V. (Eds.). Encyclopaedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. New York: Springer.

72. Dutton, E., Bakhiet, S., Lynn, R., Essa, Y., Blahmar, T., Becker, D., Osman, H. & Hakami, S. (2018). A Flynn Effect in Khartoum, the Sudanese Capital: 2004-2016. Intelligence, 68: 82-86.

71. Dutton, E., Becker, D., Osman, H., Bakhiet, S., Essa, Y., Ali, H., Alqafari, S., Hamdi, A. & Alfelah, A. (2018). The Raven’s Test Performance of South Sudanese Samples: A Validation of Criticisms of the Utility of Raven’s Among Sub-Saharan Africans. Personality and Individual Differences. 128: 122-126.

70. Bakhiet, S., Dutton, E., Ashaer, K., Essa, Y., Blahmar, T., Hakami, S. & Madison, G. (2018). Understanding the Simber Effect: Why is the age-dependent increase in children’s cognitive ability smaller in Arab countries than in Britain? Personality and Individual Differences, 122: 38-42.

69. Dutton, E., Essa, Y., Bakhiet, S., Ali, H., Alqafari, S., Alfaleh, A. & Becker, D. (2018). Brain Drain in Syria’s Ancient Capital: No Flynn Effect in Damascus, 2004-2013/14. Personality and Individual Differences, 126: 10-13.

68. Dutton, E., Madison, G. & Dunkel, C. (2018). The Mutant Says in His Heart, “There Is No God”: The Rejection of Collective Religiosity Centred Around the Worship of Moral Gods is Associated with High Mutational Load. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 4: 233-244.

67. Dutton, E. & Madison, G. (2018). Execution, Violent Punishment and Selection for Religiousness in Medieval England. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 4: 83-89.


66. Dutton, E. (2017). The male brain, testosterone and sex differences in professional achievement. Mankind Quarterly, 58: 93-100.

65. Dutton, E., Bakhiet, S., Ziada, K., Essa, Y. & Blahmar, T. (2017). A Negative Flynn Effect in Khartoum, the Sudanese Capital. Intelligence, 63: 51-55.

64. Dutton, E. & Van der Linden, D. (2017). Why is Intelligence Negatively Associated with Religiousness? Evolutionary Psychological Science, 3: 392-403.

63. Dutton, E., Bakhiet, S., Essa, Y., Blahmar, T. & Hakami, S. (2017). A Negative Flynn Effect in Kuwait: The same effect as in Europe but with seemingly different causes. Personality and Individual  Differences, 114: 69-72.

62. Dutton, E. (2017). Cultural Determinism. In International Encyclopaedia of Anthropology. John Wiley & Sons.

61. Ellis, L., Hoskin, T., Dutton, E. & Nyborg, H. (2017).  The Future of secularism: A Biologically-informed Theory  Supplemented with Cross-Cultural Evidence. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 3: 224-242.

60. Dutton, E. & Madison, G. (2017). Why do Finnish men marry Thai women but Finnish women marry British men? Cross-National Marriages in a Modern Industrialized society exhibit sex-dimorphic sexual selection according to primordial selection pressures. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 3: 1-9.


59. Dutton, E., Van der Linden, D. & Lynn, R. (2016). The negative Flynn Effect: A systematic literature review. Intelligence, 59, 163-169.

58. Madison, G., Dutton, E. & Stearn, C. (2016). Intelligence, competitive altruism, and ‘clever silliness’ may underlie bias in academe. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 40.

57. Dutton, E., Madison, G. & Lynn, R. (2016). Demographic, economic, and genetic factors related to national differences in ethnocentric attitudes. Personality and Individual Differences,  101: 137-143.

56. Dutton, E. & Madison, G. (2016). Life History and Race Differences in Puberty Length: A Test of Differential-K Theory. Mankind Quarterly, 56: 4. puberty

55. Dunkel, C. & Dutton, E. (2016). Religiosity as a predictor of ingroup favoritism within and between religious groups. Personality and Individual Differences, 98: 311-314.

54. Dutton, E., Van der Linden, D., Madison, G., Antfolk, J. & Woodley of Menie, M. (2016). The intelligence and personality of Finland’s Swedish-speaking minority. Personality and Individual Differences, 97: 45-49.

53. Dutton, E. & Madison, G. (2016). Even “Bigger Gods” developed amongst the pastoralist followers of Moses and Mohammed: Consistent with uncertainty and disadvantage not prosocality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39.

52. Dutton, E., Van der Linden, D. & Lynn, R. (2016). Population Differences in Androgen Levels: A Test of the Differential K Theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 90: 289-295.


51. Dutton, E., Kukkola, J. & te Nijenhuis, J. (2015). Stress, Political Instability, and Differences between British and Franco-German Twentieth Century Philosophy. Mankind Quarterly, 56. 7. 7. Dutton stress philosophy

50. Dutton, E. (2015). Sir Piers Dutton of Dutton and Hatton, c. 1480-1545: Mayor of Chester, High Sheriff of Cheshire and Knight of the Body of Henry VIII. Cheshire History, 55: 6-32.

49. Kura, K., te Nijenhuis, J. & Dutton, E. (2015). Why do Northeast Asians Win So Few Nobel Prizes? Comprehensive Psychology, 4.

48. Dutton, E. (2015). Ethnic Differences in Achievement in Darts. Mankind Quarterly, 56: 51-69. MQ Dutton Darts

47. Dutton, E. & Lynn, R. (2015). Cheating in Sport and Race Differences in Psychopathic Personality. Mankind Quarterly, 55: 325-334. mq dutton race cheating fin

46. Dutton, E. & Lynn, R. (2015).  A Negative Flynn Effect in France, 1999 to 2008-9. Intelligence, 51: 67-70.

45. Dutton, E. (2015).  Towards a Religious Studies that is Less Religious: The ‘Words Against Death’ Model and the Need for a Genuine ‘Science’ of Religion. Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, 40: 97-116.

44. Dutton, E. & Lynn, R. (2015). Ethnic Differences in Success in Cricket. Mankind Quarterly, 53: 226-241. 6. Ethnic Differences in Success in Cricket

43. Dutton, E. & Van der Linden, D. (2015). Who are the ‘Clever Sillies’? The intelligence, personality, and motives of clever silly originators and those who follow them. Intelligence, 49: 57-65.

42. Dutton, E. (2015). ‘Fashion’ In  John Lyden and Eric Mazur (Eds). Companion Volume to Religion and Popular Culture. London: Routledge.


41. Dutton, E. & Kirkegaard, E. (2014). Fluid g in Scandinavia and Finland: Comparing results from PISA Creative Problem Solving and the WAIS IV matrices subtest. Open Differential Psychology. 

40. Dutton, E. & Stretch, R. (2014). Racial Differences in Sexual Dimorphism as an Explanation for Differences in Olympic Track and Field Achievement. Mankind Quarterly, 55: 1/2. MQ 55 1&2 Racial Differences in Sexual Dimorphism as an Explanation for Differences in Olympic Track and Field Achievement

39. Dutton, E. & Lynn, R. (2014). The Canadian IQ calculated from the standardization of the WAIS IV. Open Differential Psychology. 

38. Dutton, E., te Nijenhuis, J. & Roivainen, E(2014). Solving the puzzle of why Finns have the highest IQ, but one of the lowest number of Nobel prizes in Europe. Intelligence, 46: 192-202 

37. Dutton, E. (2014). Nyborg’s ‘The Intelligence-Religiosity Nexus’ and the Benefits of Consilience. Open Differential Psychology.

36. Dutton, E. (2014). Cognitive Abilities Among the Sami: A Comment. Intelligence, 46: 188-191.

35. Dutton, E. & Lynn, R. (2014). Regional Differences in Intelligence and their Social and Economic Correlates in Finland. Mankind Quarterly, 54: 3.

34. Dutton, E. & Lynn, R. (2014) Intelligence and Religious and Political Differences Among the US Academic Elite. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion, 10: 1. ijrrpdf


33. Dutton, E. (2013). A problematic proxy? On Meisenberg, Rindermann, Patel and Woodley’s (2012) Analysis of the relationship between religiosity and intelligence within countries. Temas em Psicologia, 21: 2.

32. Dutton, E. (2013). Finnish Culture and Fragaria: Changes and Continuities. Suomen Antropologi: Journal of the Finnish Anthropological Society, 38: 33-45.  

31. Dutton, E. (2013). The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis: A Critical Examination of the Comprehensive Case Presented in Kanazawa’s The Intelligence Paradox. Intelligence, 41: 5.

30. Dutton, E. & Lynn, R. (2013). A Negative Flynn Effect in Finland, 1997-2009. Intelligence, 41: 5.

29. Dutton, E. (2013). The Cultural Mediation Hypothesis: A Critical Examination. Intelligence, 41: 5.

28. Dutton, E. (2013). The Philosophy of Anthropology. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy


27. Dutton, E. (2012). Recent Ethnographic Research and the Modern Finnish Social Class System as an Evolutionary Strategy. Acta Ethnographica Hungarica, 57: 139-156.


26. Dutton, E. (2011). Zombie Categories, Religion and the New False Rationalism. In Moreman, C. & Rushton, C. (Eds). Race, Oppression and the Zombie: Essays on Cross-Cultural Appropriation of the Caribbean Tradition. Jefferson, NC: McFarland Publishers.

25. Dutton, E. (2011). Finnish Funeral Photography: A Field Report. Suomen Antropologi, 36: 4.

24. Dutton, E. (2011). The Significance of British Columbia to the Origins of Culture Shock. BC Studies: The British Columbian Quarterly, 171.

23. Dutton, E. (2011). Towards a Scientific Model of Culture Shock and Intercultural Communication. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 27.

22. Dutton, E. (2011). Royal Anthropological Institute or Royal Academy?: Post-Modern Anthropology as Contemporary Art. Antrocom: Online Journal of Anthropology, 8: 1

21. Dutton, E. (2011). Culture Shock as an Implicit Religion in the Romantic Tradition. Implicit Religion, 14:1.

20. Dutton, E. (2011). The Culture Shock of St Patrick. Estudios Irlandeses: Spanish Journal of Irish Studies, 6. 125–131.


19. Dutton, E. (2010). Rejoinder to Prof. Gallagher. Religion and Education, 37:3.

18. Dutton, E. (2010). Cultural Uniqueness and Implicit Religion. Implicit Religion, 13:204_Dutton_revised_proof_August_25_2010[1]

17. Dutton, E. (2010). Anthropology Lite: An Education Perspective on the Ideology of Religious Studies. Religion and Education, 37:2.

16. Dutton, E. (2010). Latent Social Class Terms and Consumer Culture in Finland: ‘Porvari, ‘Amis,’ and ‘Pummi’. Arctic Anthropology, 48: 94-108.

15. Dutton, E. (2010). Communitas and Contestation in a University Evangelical Group: The Liminal Phase and Levels of Structure. Acta Ethnographica Hungarica, 55: 139 – 156.

14. Dutton, E. (2010). Here the Status Symbols Clash: Social Status and Status Expression in Finnish Homes. Suomen Antropologi: Journal of the Finnish Anthropological Society, 35: 5-22.

13. Dutton, E. (2010). Why does Jesus go to Oxford University? Conversion Experience, Creativity and Intelligence. Journal for Interdisciplinary Research on Religion and Science, 6. 53 – 77.


12. Dutton, E. (2008). Battling to be European: Myth and the Finnish Race Debate. Antrocom: Online Journal of Anthropology, 5: 1

11. Dutton, E. (2008). Death Metaphors in the Secularisation Debate: Towards Criteria for Successful Social Scientific Analogies. Sociological Research, 6:8.


10. Dutton, E. (2007). A Shared Pre-Christian Past? Contemporary Finnish Baptism in Light of Greenlandic Naming Rituals. Anpere: Internet Journal of the Anthropology of Religion

9. Dutton, E. (2007). “Bog off Dog Breath! You’re Talking Pants!” Swearing as Witness Evangelism in Student Evangelical Groups. Journal of Religion and Popular Culture, XVI. jrpc2


8. Dutton, E. (2006). University Students, Drunks and the Old Gods: The Finnish ‘Vapunaatto,’ Sacrifice and Liminality. Journal of Finnish Studies, 10: 1.

7. Dutton, E. (2006). Eye Glazing and the Anthropology of Religion. Anthropology Matters, 9:1.

6. Dutton, E. (2006). Political Correctness, Evangelicalism and Student Rebellion at British Universities. Journal for Political, Social and Economic Studies, 31:4.

5. Dutton, E. (2006). Ritual, Taboo and Political Protest. in Mankind Quarterly, 47:1duttonMQXLVII-1_2[1]

4. Dutton, E. (2006). Big Brother, Pilgrimage and the Ndembu of Zambia: Examining the Big Brother Phenomenon through the Anthropology of Religion. Journal of Religion and Popular Culture, XII. jrpc1


3. Dutton, E. (2005). Crop-tops, Hipsters and Liminality: Fashion and Differentiation in Two Evangelical Student Groups. Journal of Religion and Popular Culture, IX. jrpc3


2. Dutton, E. (2004). Tolerant Evangelism: An Evangelical Student Group in a Tolerant Culture. Dutch Crossing: Journal of Dutch Studies, 28: 1/2.


1. Dutton, E. (2002). Nationalist Socialism? The Position of the Scottish Socialist Party in Contemporary Discourse on Scottish Nationalism. Scotia: Interdisciplinary Journal of Scottish Studies, 24. (Published 2004).

REPORTS AND NOTES (Not Peer Reviewed)

11. Dutton, E. (2016). Obituary: Henry Harpending (1944-2016). Mankind Quarterly, 56: 4.

10. Dutton, E. (2016). Obituary: John Glad (1941-2015). Mankind Quarterly, 56: 3.

9. Dutton, E. (2015). Obituary: Tatu Vanhanen (1929-2015). Mankind Quarterly, 56. 1. 11. Dutton obituary Vanhanen

8. Dutton, E. (2012). The Duttons of Hatton Did Not Die Out: The Case Against the Rev’d Edward Dutton’s Supposition. Annals of Genealogical Research, 8: 1.

7. Dutton, E. (2012). Was Odard, First Lord of Dutton, a Relative of William the Conqueror? Annals of Genealogical Research, 8: 1.

5. Dutton, E. (2011), Saving a Symbol in Social Anthropology: Why Libertarians Should Care About ‘Culture Shock.’ Scientific Notes No 18. London: Libertarian Alliance.

5. Dutton, E. (2011), From Sudan to Suomi: Sudanese Christians in Northern Finland, Munich: Grin Verlag. (Book-length research report for Finnish Lutheran Church Research Institute).

4. (2010). Towards a Scientific Anthropology. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 16: 893-895.

3. Dutton, E. (2010), Reclaiming Anthropology for Science: A Libertarian Approach. Scientific Notes No. 17. London: Libertarian Alliance.

2. Dutton, E. (2009), Four Immigrant Churches and a Mosque: An Overview of Immigrant Religious Institutions in Oulu. Web Report 58. Turku: Finnish Institute of Migration.

1. Dutton, E. (2005). Higher Status Behaviour and Status Ambiguity: A Discussion of Exaggerated Higher Status Identity in Oxford University. Durham Anthropology Journal, 13.